AIOU Course Code 401 solved assignment Autumn 2022


Q.1   Define marriage. Write down a detail note on measurement of marriage.

Sociologists define marriage as a socially supported union involving two or more individuals in what is regarded as a stable, enduring arrangement typically based at least in part on a sexual bond of some kind.

  • Marriage is considered by sociologists to be a cultural universal; that is, it exists in some form in all societies.
  • Marriage serves important social functions, and social norms often determine the role each spouse takes in a marriage.
  • Because marriage is a social construct, cultural norms and expectations determine what a marriage is and who can marry.

Depending on the society, marriage may require religious and/or civil sanction, although some couples may come to be considered married simply by living together for a period of time (common law marriage). Though marriage ceremonies, rules, and roles may differ from one society to another, marriage is considered a cultural universal, which means that it is present as a social institution in all cultures.

Marriage serves several functions. In most societies, it serves to socially identify children by defining kinship ties to a mother, father, and extended relatives. It also serves to regulate sexual behavior, to transfer, preserve, or consolidate property, prestige, and power, and most importantly, it is the basis for the institution of the family.

In most societies, a marriage is considered a permanent social and legal contract and relationship between two people that is based on mutual rights and obligations among the spouses. A marriage is often based on a romantic relationship, though this is not always the case. But regardless, it typically signals a sexual relationship between two people. A marriage, however, does not simply exist between the married partners, but rather, is codified as a social institution in legal, economic, social, and spiritual/religious ways. Because a marriage is recognized by law and by religious institutions, and involves economic ties between the spouses, a dissolution of marriage (annulment or divorce) must, in turn, involve a dissolution of the marriage relationship in all of these realms.

Q.2   How the status of women effects population growth? Discuss in detail with reference to Pakistani society.        

Educated women struggled to enter and stay in the workforce, women with low education levels faced even more limitations. This was indicated by gaps in their aspirations and lack of knowledge regarding opportunities. Many women had to drop out of schools due to safety concerns or financial constraints, while others feared resistance from family and communities if they pursued jobs outside the home. Women who worked struggled with low wages and the burden of household responsibilities. However, all women expressed a committed desire to support their daughters’ ambitions to complete schooling and work for pay if they wished to. These discussions motivated us to look beyond individual experiences and into representative data.

Social norms shape women’s labor outcomes

To mind the demeanor of women and protect their honor, many men restrict women from leaving home and, if they do go out, they are chaperoned. Women therefore seek work that can be done at home. Traditional honor codes also influence job selection and create barriers to jobs outside what is considered socially acceptable. These attitudes indicate deeply rooted gender inequality, often espoused by women themselves. A non-working woman previously employed as a school helper stated: “I think a woman should do home-based work. This way she can keep an eye on the children. She will be able to perform household responsibilities, everyone will get food on time, and everything would be done smoothly.”

Q.4   What are the causes of rural-urban migration in Pakistan? Discuss in detail.      

By 2010, the population is expected to reach 167.37 million at an annual growth rate of 1.8 per cent, with the rural and urban populations at 106.55 million (63.66 per cent) and 60.82 million (36.34 per cent) respectively.

During 2005-10, the rural and urban pollution growth rates are estimated to rise from 1.1 to 3.3 per cent. Urban population will grow at a higher rate.

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