Course: School Administration and Supervision (8616)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 2
Q.1 What is performance appraisal and why it is conducted? Explain the performance appraisal process and different techniques used for this purpose.
A perforzance appraisal is a regular review of an employee’s job performance and contribution to a company. Companies use performance appraisals to determine which employees have contributed the most to the company’s growth, review progress, and reward high-achieving workers.
What Is a Performance Appraisal?
The term performance appraisal refers to the regular review of an employee’s job performance and overall contribution to a company. Also known as an annual review, performance review or evaluation, or employee appraisal, a performance appraisal evaluates an employee’s skills, achievements, and growth, or lack thereof.
Companies use performance appraisals to give employees big-picture feedback on their work and to justify pay increases and bonuses, as well as termination decisions. They can be conducted at any given time but tend to be annual, semi-annual, or quarterly.
Q.2 How financial audit and academic audit are different? Explain our answer keeping in mind different aspects of audit.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCE AUDIT AND FINANCIAL AUDIT
Although procedurally, performance audit and the financial audit have many things in common, they are not alike. Basic difference between the two, while the performance audit focuses on efficiency measurements, financial audit focuses on the accuracy and correctness of accounts. Other areas of difference between the two can be listed as under:
Financial audit is a routine job. It does not focus on any specific problem. Performance audit, on the other hand focuses on problems and the process of identification of its causes.
In financial audit, attention is more on figures, in performance audit, however, the attention is more on people, and other resources.
Q.3 Introduce different approaches of supervising focusing the authoritarian and development approach of supervision.
ISSUES OF FACULTY SUPERVISION In the summer of 1998, we had the opportunity to collaborate in surveying new department chairs throughout the University of Wisconsin System campuses. These newly assigned chairs showed varying concerns regarding how to provide substantive and meaningful supervision to the faculty in their departments. The concerns ranged from how to provide supervisory feedback, in general, and adequate feedback to senior and difficult faculty, in particular. In other words, a main concern indicated by these department chairs focused on the fact that tenured faculty, nontenured faculty, and faculty showing difficulties in any of the areas of teaching, scholarship, or service have different needs, and hence, a one-size-fits-all model for supervision does not make sense. Quite often supervision is done haphazardly, if at all. So the chairs’ efforts are quick and frustratingly meaningless.
Q.4 Make a list of adjectives that describe the characteristics of an effective school supervisor.
Skills a good supervisor may possess
- Communication skills.
- Approachability and empathy.
- Management skills.
- Confidence and positivity.
- Willingness to learn.
- What makes a good supervisor?
Q.5 Link the literature with present use of technology in institutions and prepare a report on it.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) includes computers, the Internet, and electronic delivery systems such as radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and is widely used in today’s education field. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide range of computer activities, while the home serves as a complementary site for regular engagement in a narrower set of computer activities. Increasingly, ICT is being applied successfully in instruction, learning, and assessment. ICT is considered a powerful tool for educational change and reform. A number of previous studies have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and connect learning to real-life situations (Lowther, et al. 2008; Weert and Tatnall 2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is an ongoing lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches. As time goes by, they will have to expect and be willing to seek out new sources of knowledge.