Course: Plan Implementation and Management (8617),
Level: B.Ed (One and Half Years) ,
Semester: Spring, 2022
Q.1 Explain the pal formulation stage in educational planning process. Also highlight the basic factors which the planner should take into consideration while formulation an educational plan.
Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) activities encompass “People from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching” . Within health professional curricula, PAL is well accepted and utilised as an educational method, involving a process of socialisation, often with junior and senior students acting as tutees and tutors respectively. PAL activities provide a framework whereby students are permitted to practice and develop their healthcare and teaching skills [2, 3]. Through the contribution of students’ varied experiences, and the use of shared resources, students learn with and from each other. However, the success of PAL activities is dependent upon two key factors: the “agency” of the individual students (tutors and tutees), that is, their willingness to participate; and importantly, the “affordance” of the activity and the workplace, that is, the invitational quality provided by the clinical school . To clarify terms used within this paper, we refer to the ‘tutor’ as the students who are assisting their student peers with their learning;
Q.2 Explain the basic elements of a project with examples. Also formulate a project for community development.
A good project plan is one of the most essential elements of success in project management. From preventing scope creep, overblown budgets, and missed deadlines to minimizing stress and frustration. An ounce of prevention in project planning is worth a pound of cure. So, how do you create a good project plan and what are the essential elements of a project plan?
This article shares ten key ingredients to create the perfect plan and keep your team and projects running smoothly. We also have an infographic below to summarize these project elements.
Who creates project plans?
The obvious answer to this is project managers. But everyone who has to manage projects in their roles can benefit from creating project plans before starting a new project, especially in cases of similar or recurring projects. A project plan saves you the time it takes to recreate the same project over again.
Team members and stakeholders involved in the project and its results may provide input, expertise, costs, and other relevant information to be added and approved before the project manager puts the finishing touches on the project plan.
Q.3 Critically review the educational system of Pakistan. Also suggest measures to make this system more efficient and effective.
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”.
The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to 5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC), intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees. The Higher Education Commission established in 2002 is responsible for all universities and degree awarding institutes. It was established in 2002 with Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as its Founding Chairman.
The literacy rate ranges from 82% in Islamabad to 23% in the Torghar District. Literacy rates vary by gender and region. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%, while Azad Kashmir has a literacy rate of 74%. Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 25,000-30,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has low literacy rate. And Pakistan also has the second largest out of school population (22.8 million children) after Nigeria.
Q.4 Explain the function and computational techniques of project appraisal in the context of Pakistan.
Some of the methods of project appraisal are as follows:
1. Economic Analysis:
Under economic analysis, the project aspects highlighted include requirements for raw material, level of capacity utilization, anticipated sales, anticipated expenses and the probable profits. It is said that a business should have always a volume of profit clearly in view which will govern other economic variables like sales, purchases, expenses and alike.
It will have to be calculated how much sales would be necessary to earn the targeted profit. Undoubtedly, demand for the product will be estimated for anticipating sales volume. Therefore, demand for the product needs to be carefully spelled out as it is, to a great extent, deciding factor of feasibility of the project concern.
2. Financial Analysis:
Finance is one of the most important pre-requisites to establish an enterprise. It is finance only that facilitates an entrepreneur to bring together the labour of one, machine of another and raw material of yet another to combine them to produce goods.
In order to adjudge the financial viability of the project, the following aspects need to be carefully analysed:
Q.5 Analyze the basic difference between project appraisal and evaluation
What is Project appraisal (or evaluation)?
Project appraisal (or evaluation) is an independent activity, but similar to monitoring is related to project monitoring in some aspects. The project evaluation is an analysis of the information collected and systematized during the monitoring. It focuses on how the results contribute to the immediate objective and to what extent it will lead to the achievement of the common goals.
The aspects of the project evaluation (appraisal)
The project evaluation or appraisal is a purposeful and systematic assessment that can cover various aspects:
Relevance – whether the strategy adopted is consistent with the goals set;
Impact – aims to clarify the differences and changes caused by the project and to check whether the project is relevant to the specific circumstances;
Efficiency and efficiency – whether the finances are used appropriately.
The main purpose of the project evaluation (appraisal)
The main purpose of the project evaluation (appraisal) is to provide information on the results, and its purpose is to improve the quality and effectiveness of project management. The evaluation is carried out at certain stages – during the preparation of the project, at some point after its implementation and after its completion.